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    Seguem abaixo 4 textos com nível de testes de proficiência de mestrados para você praticar sua leitura em inglês.
    Bons estudos!

    Saúde – Statins could cut death risk by a third for some arthritis patients

    Statins are a class of cholesterol-lowering medication commonly used to reduce the risk of heart attack, stroke, and heart disease. New research, however, suggests the drugs may have another trick up their sleeve: they could reduce the risk of death for patients with certain forms of arthritis.

    Researchers suggest statins could lower mortality risk for patients with ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis.
    Researchers from Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston found statins reduced mortality by as much as a third for patients with ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis.

    Lead study author Dr. Amar Oza and colleagues recently presented their results at the American College of Rheumatology Annual Scientific Meeting in Washington, D.C.

    Ankylosing spondylitis is a form of arthritis characterized by inflammation of joints in the spine, and sometimes other areas of the body.

    Symptoms of ankylosing spondylitis include back pain and stiffness, which often begin in late adolescence or early adulthood. In severe cases, long-term inflammation can lead to calcification, causing bones in the spine to fuse.

    Psoriatic arthritis is a chronic form of arthritis characterized by inflammation of the skin and joints.

    Symptoms include joint pain and swelling, and if left untreated, the condition can lead to joint damage. Onset of psoriatic arthritis usually occurs between the ages of 30-50, and the condition is most common among people with psoriasis.

    Statins reduced all-cause mortality by 33 percent
    Both ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis increase risk of death from cardiovascular diseases. While statins are known to reduce disease risk by lowering cholesterol, studies have suggested that the drugs also have anti-inflammatory properties that benefit cardiovascular health.

    Taking this into consideration, Dr. Oza and colleagues decided to investigate whether statins might reduce mortality for patients with ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis.

    Fast facts about arthritis

    More than 50 million adults in the United States have some form of arthritis
    The number of Americans diagnosed with arthritis is expected to reach 67 million by 2030
    Arthritis is the leading cause of disability in the U.S.
    Learn more about arthritis
    For their study, the researchers analyzed a population database from the United Kingdom, which included 2,904 patients with either ankylosing spondylitis or psoriatic arthritis who started taking statins between 2000-2014.

    These patients were matched with 2,904 ankylosing spondylitis or psoriatic arthritis patients who did not start using statins.

    Over a mean follow-up of 5.3 years, 271 of the patients who started taking statins died, while 376 of the patients who did not start statins died during a mean follow-up period of 5.15 years.

    Overall, the team calculated that ankylosing spondylitis or psoriatic arthritis patients who started statin therapy were at 33 percent lower risk of all-cause mortality than those who did not start using the drugs.

    Compared with population-based cohort studies of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, the researchers say their study shows a greater reduction in mortality risk for ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis who started using statins.

    The team speculates that this heightened benefit is likely down to both the cholesterol-lowering and anti-inflammatory properties of statins.

    “Given the increased risk of mortality and cardiovascular disease compared to the general population, patients with seronegative spondyloarthropathies like ankylosing spondylitis or psoriatic arthritis may benefit from the dual anti-inflammatory and lipid-lowering properties of statins, perhaps even more than in the general population,” notes Dr. Oza.

    “This observational study raises the possibility that clinicians may have a lower threshold for starting their patients on statins to mitigate this mortality risk. To that effect, it sets the groundwork for potential clinical trials to come, which will provide high-level evidence about the impact statins have on their health.”

    Dr. Amar Oza
    Read how high-dose statins may increase survival for patients with cardiovascular disease.

    Written by Honor Whiteman

    Jurídica – Subrogation in Loan Agreements Under Italian Law

    Subrogation in loan agreements (“surroga del mutuo” or “portabilità del mutuo”) is an innovation introduced in Italy by the Budget Law of 2008, known as “Legge Bersani” and consequently disciplined by art. 120-quater of legislative decree n. 385/1993 (Testo Unico Bancario – Consolidated Banking Act).

    It is a procedure, which allows to transfer a pre-existing loan agreement from a bank (banca surrogata) to another (banca surrogante) that offers better conditions or different parameters compared with the previous commitment, with no additional costs or charges and without requiring the original credit institution’s consent. The introduction encountered some initial resistances in the Italy, due to a legislative gap regarding taxation system. The gap risked to ingenerate extra costs for banks when evaluating the credit conditions, with potential repercussions on the loan agreement itself. Resistances eventually were overcome successfully thanks to banks’ decision to assume the costs of all notarial operations, which differs from standard loans where it is the borrower the one dealing with notary’s fees.

    It appears now obvious the inner advantage of a loan subrogation, with its potential to transform the old loan arrangement into a brand new and more convenient one. If you wish to go for it, all you need is a request for subrogation in order to reduce the amount of monthly fees, change the loan’s durations or the applied rate, maintaining unchanged the residual debt’s sum.

    After all, it seems that a loan subrogation it is nothing more than a typical loan agreement, in which the bank succeeds in the position of the original borrower for an amount corresponding exactly to the residual debt sum, mortgage guarantees included.

    The agreement remains indeed stable an unvaried and there is no cancelation of pre-existing mortgages. Simply it would be recorded in the mortgage’s registration an indication of the new creditor.

    Please notice that loan portability is exclusively possible in the sole case of exact coincidence of credit’s amount compared with the one residual from the first agreement, since only loan conditions are revisable and editable. Besides, it is to some extent possible to obtain as well an addition sum of credit, however under this circumstance the variation of the loan agreement could also find place through different procedures, bringing potential additional costs.

    Trilateral or bilateral subrogation?

    Subrogation can occur through the following legislative schemes:

    – Trilateral Subrogation (Surroga trilaterale). The original bank (“Banca surrogata”), the
    new bank (“Banca surrogante”) and the debtor (“Mutuatario”) signed and record in a sole notarially attested act: the new loan agreement, establishing terms and conditions between the debtor and the new credit institution; a declaration given by the first borrower certifying the termination of the previous contract and a commitment for non-cancelling the original mortgage’s registration.

    – Bilateral Subrogation (Surroga bilaterale). The new Bank (“Banca surrogante”) and the

    debtor (“Mutuatario”) sign the loan agreement determining terms and conditions;
    subsequently, there will be a separate autonomous unilateral act declaring the termination of the first loan, together with the commitment of non-cancellation of the original mortgage. In order for the agreement to be effectively sealed, the subrogation shall always pass through both steps. Both acts will then require a notary’s authentication.

    “Rinegoziazione” (Renegotiation) and “Sostituzione” (Substitution)

    Once examined the whole structure of the agreement, we think it is important to add some more details in order to make a distinction between a subrogation, a renegotiation and a substitution in a loan agreement.

    – Renegotiation is the sole reformulation of a pre-existing loan contract, which allows the arties to adapt it to the new market conditions. It is hence no substitution, but only a variation of a contract.

    – Substitution is it a termination of an original contract followed by the cancelation of a former mortgage’s annotation and a registration of a new one in favour of a different credit institution. This institute usually finds application when there is a request for further liquidity or to obtain more favourable contract conditions.

    – Subrogation is conversely a real variation of the subjects of the agreement, which allows a credit transfer from a bank to a new one, in order to obtain some more advantageous contract terms and conditions, without variations concerning mortgage guarantees.

    In loan portability the sole restriction remains the bond to the amount of credit, which cannot vary in the passage from a subject to a different one. Otherwise the rate type, the duration of the loan, the interests and the spread proposed by the new bank may change and they are thus the variables to be taken into consideration, when evaluating the advantages of a loan subrogation.

    Kentons Miles Worldwide Legal Network works in collaboration with clients to leverage visionary innovation that addresses the challenges and opportunities that will make or break today’s market participants.

    Our team of English-speaking Italian lawyers supports clients by addressing these opportunities and can assist both local and foreign clients, as we enjoy the support of an international network of experienced and skilled attorneys coming from four different legislations, which can provide you with all the help you need. Due to our wide international legal background, our professionals will surely constitute a solid help.

    AUTHOR: Riccardo Virga

    Educação – ‘Is It Safe?’ Foreign Students Consider College in Donald Trump’s U.S.

    NEW DELHI — At a college fair on Wednesday at the Le Méridien hotel here, 20 American universities made their pitches to aspiring students, many of whom had long hoped to study in the United States. But as the students checked out presentations from colleges ranging from the State University of New York at Binghamton to Abilene Christian University in Texas, several expressed concerns about going to America under a Donald J. Trump administration.

    “It’s the main topic of conversation among my friends,” said Palak Gera, 21, who is applying to graduate programs in pharmaceutical science in North Carolina, Illinois and North Dakota. “They don’t want to apply to the U.S. under Trump.”

    Aman Kumar, 18, who is looking at universities in California, said, “In his campaign, he’s discriminating against Muslim and other brown and black people,” adding, “I’m thinking of applying to Canada.”

    This year, the number of international students in United States colleges surpassed one million for the first time, bringing more than $32 billion a year into the economy and infusions of money to financially struggling colleges.
    College admissions officials in the United States caution that it is too early to draw firm conclusions about overseas applications, because deadlines for applications are generally in January and February. But they are worried that Mr. Trump’s election as president could portend a decline in international candidates.

    Canadian universities have already detected a postelection surge in interest from overseas.

    “We have seen an increase in applications from the U.S. and from international students in the last week,” Jocelyne Younan, the director of global undergraduate recruitment at McGill University in Montreal, wrote in an email. “We’ve also seen an increase in students inquiring about McGill on social media.”

    Traffic on a University of Toronto website for international applicants surged the day after the election, officials there said — and most of it came from Americans.

    “Visits to our recruitment website from the U.S. are typically around 1,000 a day,” said Ted Sargent, the university’s vice president, international. “On Nov. 9, that spiked to 10,000.”

    On the same day, there was an increase in visitors from Britain and India, Mr. Sargent said.

    “Our positive message as a university, but also as a city and a country, definitely is about openness to people from around the world and a real inclusiveness,” he said.
    A disruption in the flow of international students could be particularly worrisome for universities who balance their books with income from international students, who generally pay higher tuition.

    At Indiana State University, 1,000 of the 13,500 students are foreign, including many Saudis who transferred this year from Idaho State, and officials are concerned, said Santhana Naidu, an associate vice president for communications and marketing.

    “We have already received inquiries from prospective students who are in the applicant pool,” Mr. Naidu said. “They’re asking, ‘Is it safe for me to come there?’ and generally getting the lay of the land.” Mr. Naidu will be among officials meeting this week in Terre Haute at the university to determine what they can do to assuage fears.

    Scott Manning, the director of global programs at Susquehanna University, a liberal arts college in Selinsgrove, Pa., said he had heard before the election that two prospective students from China were waiting until after the vote to submit visa documents necessary to attend Susquehanna.

    “They were kind of spooked about threats Trump made about the South China Sea, back and forth with Japan about some uninhabited islands, and trade issues in general,” Mr. Manning said. The students, who were considering an English-language program beginning in January as a precursor to fall enrollment, have still not submitted their documents, he said.

    Students from Kuwait looking over quiz results in February outside their math professor’s office at Idaho State University. CreditKim Raff for The New York Times
    Officials at Ohio State University said it was too early to tell whether the election result would affect international applications, adding that there had been an increase so far this year, although most were received before Election Day.

    International study has historically been affected by social forces. Attacks on Indian students in Australia in 2009 and 2010 were believed to be part of the reason for a sharp drop-off in applications from India.

    International education experts first raised concerns in May about the election of Mr. Trump, when a study was presented at a meeting of Nafsa: Association of International Educators indicating that a Trump presidency could dissuade international students from coming to the United States.

    The study, by Intead and FPP EDU Media, two companies specializing in international student recruitment for colleges, found that 60 percent of international prospective students would be less likely to attend a college in the United States if Mr. Trump were elected. “We were really surprised, if not shocked, by the results,” said Benjamin Waxman, the chief executive of Intead.

    More recently, international education experts who have been on the ground in China and India — the two biggest feeder countries to United States colleges — also say they are seeing postelection jitters.

    Andrew Chen, the chief development officer at WholeRen, an international education consulting company in Pittsburgh, returned to the United States this week from China, where he said colleges in other countries were trying to capitalize on fears over Mr. Trump.

    “Many organizations and programs are starting to use this to promote education in the U.K., Australia and Singapore,” Mr. Chen said. “These competitors paint the U.S. as not safe. Now, with Trump, they’re saying it’s going to be unfriendly.”

    But Mr. Chen said he believed the fears of international students were unfounded. “He doesn’t like refugees from the Middle East, and he said for all Muslims he wanted to do a background check,” Mr. Chen said. “And also people from Mexico. He doesn’t like those people.”

    Mr. Chen added, “But I don’t think he ever said he doesn’t like international students who pay tuition to study in the U.S.”

    Rahul Choudaha, an international education consultant in New Jersey, has been traveling for the past week in India, where he said there was a palpable worry among students and their parents.

    “They are not seeing the United States as a safe destination,” said Mr. Choudaha, a founder of interEdge, a company that helps international students. “They’re changing the destination to Australia or Singapore.”

    “It’s an anti-immigrant tone,” he added. “Just stylistically, he seems be a very different person than people thought would be taking leadership in America.”

    As she prepared her applications to prestigious American universities, Naina Lavakare, a senior at the British School in New Delhi, developed a Plan B.

    “It was a family joke,” said Ms. Lavakare’s mother, Jyoti Pande. “You can apply anywhere you want. However, if it’s Trump in the White House, we’re not sure we want to send you to the U.S.”

    Ms. Lavakare, 17, has adjusted her college aspirations. While she still has several American colleges on her list — in New York, California and Rhode Island — she dropped universities in “red states” to focus on colleges in Britain and Canada, her mother said, because she was concerned about Mr. Trump’s anti-immigrant talk.

    Ms. Lavakare and her friends, Ms. Pande said, “view Trump as a bigot and a misogynist.” She added, “I think that is what is freaking them out more than anything else.”


    Administração – Goldman Sachs, Bank to the Elite, Makes Pitch to the Masses

    Goldman Sachs, long the banker to the rich and powerful, has a message for ordinary folks — debt happens.

    On Thursday, Goldman will introduce its first advertising campaign ever aimed at getting individuals — even those who may barely qualify for credit above the subprime range — out of their higher-cost credit card debt by replacing it with a fixed-rate, lower-cost personal loan.

    The campaign’s 15- and 30-second video ads, which will appear on Facebook, Hulu, Pandora and YouTube, depict debt as an unavoidable nuisance of modern life, not shameful overspending on unaffordable luxuries. A car gets a cracked windshield while parked at a Little League game. A couch gets chewed up by a new puppy. A child gets new braces. Or a water heater springs a leak.

    “Debt happens. It’s how you get out that counts,” the ads say.

    Dustin Cohn, the head of brand management for Goldman’s new consumer lending arm, Marcus by Goldman Sachs, said the bank’s aim was to “destigmatize debt and help consumers explore new ways of managing their debt.”

    The ads were created by the digital agency Elephant, whose clients include Twitter and Apple. Marcus is pitching consumers on paying off their credit cards with loans of $3,500 to $30,000 for terms up to six years at average rates of 12 to 13 percent, a few percentage points below typical card rates. Two-thirds of the borrowers are not aware that personal loans “can be a better option,” Mr. Cohn said, citing Goldman research.

    Mr. Cohn himself is a consumer marketing veteran who, before joining Goldman last year, worked at the underwear brand Jockey International as well as PepsiCo and Pizza Hut.

    Through the ad campaign, Goldman is peddling itself to the masses in a way it has avoided through much of its 147-year history, during which it primarily focused on advising blue-chip corporations, professional money managers and wealthy individuals.

    Goldman has sold mutual funds through investment advisers since 1989, and last year it introduced a group of exchange-traded funds available to consumers. And it ran corporate-image ads after its initial public offering of stock in 1999, and again starting in 2010 to repair its “vampire squid” reputation.

    Goldman Sachs will place 15- and 30-second video ads on YouTube, Facebook, Pandora and Hulu for its new service, Marcus by Goldman Sachs.
    But these days, Goldman is entering new consumer markets as the business environment shifts and new regulations make consumer-oriented businesses potentially more lucrative. Regulators have cracked down on some of Goldman’s longtime strongholds, such as trading, and have forced big banks to maintain bigger capital cushions for some assets.

    “The real driver” of the new Marcus lending push is “the way the capital rules are,” Goldman’s chief executive, Lloyd C. Blankfein, said last week at a New York Times DealBook conference. “We are dissuaded from growing into certain activities that are capital-intensive, and it’s easier to grow into other areas that are more favored by the regulators and capital rules,” Mr. Blankfein added.

    The last major Wall Street company to try something like this was Morgan Stanley, which merged with the down-market retail brokerage and credit card firm Dean Witter, Discover in 1997. The merger aimed to reduce the market-driven volatility of Morgan Stanley’s earnings by balancing it with Dean Witter’s steadier fee-driven revenues.

    Although the Dean Witter merger set off a culture clash between top executives and bankers, it also prepared Morgan Stanley to pick up the Smith Barney retail brokerage firm from Citigroup a decade later. The result: Morgan Stanley now ranks near the top in retail brokerage business, and the former head of those operations has been its chief executive since 2010.

    Marcus grew out of a companywide review of initiatives begun in 2014 under Stephen M. Scherr, Goldman’s head of strategy and chief executive of Goldman Sachs Bank USA. “We were looking for something different, something new” that wouldn’t compete with Goldman’s existing businesses in investment banking, securities trading, money management and merchant banking, Mr. Scherr said.

    Goldman’s growth has slowed since its heyday before the financial crisis; its stock has trailed both the broader market and bank stocks since mid-2009. “They’ve gone from great to merely good,” said Mike Mayo, a banking analyst at CLSA. One reason for the slowdown: All big Wall Street companies have slashed their borrowing levels to cut risk.

    Goldman’s push into retail markets also includes getting consumer deposits online, a business that received a lift in April when Goldman bought a $16 billion consumer deposit portfolio from General Electric.

    It is easier for Goldman to grow in this sphere because, unlike other Wall Street giants like JPMorgan Chase, Bank of America and Citigroup, it does not have a big credit card operation against which Marcus would compete. And it does not have to build an expansive network of branches. “Digital delivery of financial products presented a different opportunity,” Mr. Scherr said.

    Lending to consumers always comes with some risk, said Karen L. Webster, chief executive of Market Platform Dynamics, a payments research consulting firm in Boston. “The thing to worry about, when you’re refinancing people who want to consolidate, is that they may not be your cream-of-the-crop borrower, elevating the risk even further for the lender,” she said.

    The small-scale start-up consumer business could prepare Goldman to expand in the future.

    “I think what Goldman wants to do here is experiment with this, get in-house expertise and see if they can figure out how it works,” said Chris Kotowski, a bank analyst at Oppenheimer & Company. “Then three years from now, if some consumer banking business becomes available, they can approach it with a base infrastructure that can be expanded.”